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Read e-book online A Dictionary of Ancient Near Eastern Architecture PDF

By Gwendolyn Leick

ISBN-10: 0415002400

ISBN-13: 9780415002400

This Dictionary supplies a accomplished survey of the complete variety of old close to jap structure from the Neolithic around huts in Palestine to the enormous temples of Ptolemaic Egypt. Gwendolyn Leick examines the advance of the vital varieties of old structure inside their geographical and old context, and describes beneficial properties of significant websites corresponding to Ur, Nineveh and Babylon, in addition to some of the lesser-known websites. She additionally covers the differences of commonplace historic architectural constructions corresponding to pyramids, tombs and homes, information the development fabric and methods hired, and clarifies professional terminology.

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The royal tombs are situated underneath the Old Palace. They were barrel-vaulted (since Ashur-nasirpal, 883–859 BC) and had heavy basalt doors and sarcophagi of the same material. , ‘Die Paläste in Assur’, WVDOG 66 (Berlin 1955) Assyrian architecture The name Assyria derives from the national god and his eponymous cult city Ashur. The countryside between the Tigris, the foothills of Kurdistan and the lesser Zab, which constituted the heartland of Assyria, was a fertile region. At the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC, Assyrian merchants were responsible for much of the trade in precious metals and other commodities conducted with Anatolia and southern Mesopotamia.

Beni-Hasan: rock-cut tomb (Middle Kingdom) 2133–1786 BC) which had been commissioned by wealthy administrators (nomarchs). The oldest tombs at Beni-Hasan have a simple square tomb-chamber with a single or treble row of columns or pillars cut from the rock. Later examples have larger chambers with lotus columns and the late tombs are fronted by vaulted porticoes supported by eight- or sixteen-sided, gracefully tapered and fluted (ProtoDoric) pillars. The tomb-chambers behind have vaulted ceilings carved from the rocks and the walls are painted with lively scenes of pastoral and domestic life.

Arches were built predominantly in mudbrick, sometimes with specially shaped bricks for the voussoirs. Otherwise, regular rectangular bricks were used and the gaps between them were filled out with chippings. Stone arches are much rarer (one at Tell Taya: Agade-period—see Iraq 30, p. 247); in Egypt they were introduced in the Middle Kingdom and tended to be cut from already laid blocks in a corbelled roof. The Hittites introduced the megalithic, parabolic arch, composed of two huge upright stone boulders inclined against each other until they met at the top (eg ALAÇA HÜYÜK, BOGHAZKÖY).

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