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A History of English Language Teaching - download pdf or read online

By A.P.R. Howatt

ISBN-10: 0194370755

ISBN-13: 9780194370752

This publication strains the historical past of English language instructing correct as much as the origins of the communicative procedure, finishing with a dialogue of the effect of utilized linguistics on language instructing in either the USA and Britain.

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Sample text

The 'Boolean' way of thinking deceives us, however, in that there are actually more than the 2 x 2 possibilities that there seem to be: a combination of the Perfect and the Future may be either a 'Perfect of the Future' or a 'Future of the Perfect', and the propensity to use these cannot be reduced to the product of the propensities of the individual categories. We are thus using a simplified model that may lead us astray if we think that it can be applied in all cases. This is important to bear in mind, but does not invalidate the method in general.

Also, since examples representing secondary uses according to the hypothesis will appear rather far down the ranking list, the use or non-use of a category in such examples will have rather little influence on the C and HR values. We may exemplify this by the PERFECT category again: in chapter 5, we shall identify a variety that we shall call PFCTq or PERFECT-QUOTATIVE, which differs from other instances of PFCT by being used also in 'quotative' contexts (see chapter 5 for further discussion). To this group belong Persian, Azerbaijani and Georgian.

This sounds a bit complicated, although it is not in fact. What it means in practice is the following. For each postulated cross-linguistic category C , wc establish a ranking list of the examples in the questionnaire. The hypothesis is now simply that if C is manifested as a language-specific category C' and C' occurs n times in the questionnaire, those n occurrences will be exactly the top n examples on the ranking list. Thus, a PFCT category having 18 occurrences in the questionnaire will, in the ideal case, occur in the top 18 examples on the PFCT list.

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A History of English Language Teaching by A.P.R. Howatt


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