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New PDF release: A Student's Grammar of Malay and Indonesian

By Malcolm W. Mintz

ISBN-10: 9971003988

ISBN-13: 9789971003982

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Extra resources for A Student's Grammar of Malay and Indonesian

Sample text

Finally, any vowel can be pronounced with protrusion (rounding) of the lips, and thus [o], [u] are rounded vowels whereas [i], [ ] are unrounded vowels. With these independently controllable phonetic parameters – five degrees of height, three degrees of fronting, and rounding versus nonrounding – one predicts the possibility of up to thirty vowels, which is many more vowels than are found in English. Many of these vowels are lacking in English, but can be found in other languages. Here are a few examples: (3) ü high front round vowel (found in German, French, Turkish) lax high front round vowel (found in Icelandic) mid front round vowel (found in German, French, Turkish) lax mid front round vowel (found in Swiss German) low front round vowel (found in French) central (or back) unrounded vowel (found in Turkish, Russian) ¨υ ö ¨ɔ œ ,ɯ All of these vowels can be characterized in terms of the three basic vowel properties of height, backness and rounding.

Lax tense lax i ι e ε v e tense u υ high c (2) mid ο a Front unrounded Central unrounded low Back rounded The three most important properties for defining vowels are height, backness, and roundness. The height of a vowel refers to the fact that the tongue is higher when producing the vowel [i] than when producing [e] (which is higher than that used for [ ]), and the same holds for the relation between [u], [o] and [a]. i e u o a FIGURE 13 Tongue position of vowels Three primary heights are generally recognized, namely high, mid and low, with secondary distinctions introduced either under the name tense ϳ lax or close ϳ open to distinguish vowel pairs such as [i] (seed) vs.

Hence one fundamental component of a language is a lexicon, a list of words (or morphemes – parts of words), which must provide any information which cannot be predicted by rules of the language. However, much about the pronunciation of words can be predicted. For example, in the word tick the initial voiceless consonant t is phonetically aspirated, and is phonetically transcribed [thιk]. This aspiration can be demonstrated visually by dangling a tissue in front of the mouth when saying the word: notice that when you pronounce t, the tissue is blown forward.

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A Student's Grammar of Malay and Indonesian by Malcolm W. Mintz

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